what is this tutorial
Let's start off simple
Method 1: parseInt()
Probably one of the most widely used functions,
parseInt() allows us to quickly turns numbers to integers. Take this example:
parseInt("5") ⇒ 5 (NOTE: I will use
⇒ to denote a return value of a statement). Seems simple enough. What happens when we try some other values?
parseInt("55.5") ⇒ 55 parseInt("2e") ⇒ 2 parseInt("g") ⇒ NaN
How does this make any sense? The
parseInt() function actually reads the string from left to right, with whitespace at the beginning and ends ignored. It will keep reading the string as long as the portion defines a whole number, and any unexpected character will cause it to return immediately. This explains why
2e evaluates to 2. If no value can be read,
NaN is returned.
Method 2: parseFloat()
parseFloat() is very similar to its sister function
parseInt() except it will accept decimals:
parseFloat("55.5") ⇒ 55.5. Like before,
parseFloat() reads the string from left to right and also will return after reaching an unexpected character.
Method 3: Number()
The above two methods use parsing of a string by reading the characters. The
Number() method casts the type of the string to an integer.
Number("5") ⇒ 5 This method is more strict with any strings containing invalid characters returning
NaN since the entire string is typecasted:
Number("55.5") ⇒ 55.5 Number("2e") ⇒ NaN Number("g") ⇒ NaN
The methods listed above are fairly standard, now we will get into some of the more cursed ways to convert strings to numbers.
Method 4: Math functions
Math functions like
Math.round() can be used to convert strings to integers.
Math.floor("5") ⇒ 5". Why is this? The
Math function tries to be convenient for the programmer and automatically converts string inputs into numbers, then evaluates the result. This means we can use any
Math function we want, although this method is not advised. Like
Number(), the entire string must be a valid number or
NaN will be returned:
Math.floor("2e") ⇒ NaN Math.floor("g") ⇒ NaN
Method 5: Unary +
The unary + is
what real gamers use a very interesting way to convert a string to a number. It looks something like this:
+"5" ⇒ 5. This was actually built into the language and not many people have heard about this method. It is actually one of the fastest ways to convert a string to a number, and all sorts of values work, but the entire string must be a number once again:
+"55.5" ⇒ 55.5 +"2tw" ⇒ NaN
In fact, the unary + boolean values. It tries to convert anything it can:
+true ⇒ 1 +false ⇒ 0
The unary negation operation also works, but it converts the number to its opposite (* -1) and is hardly ever seen because why would you ever need to do that?
Method 6: Multiplication by 1
0 to a string and adds it on the end:
"5" + 0 ⇒ "50". However, subtracting zero does work.
Method 7: Bitwise Operators
Using a bitwise operator on a string like
& will convert it to a number:
"12.6" | 0 ⇒ 12. Any bitwise operator can be used as long as the value is maintained. These include
>> 0, and so on. One thing to note is that any values over 32 bits will overflow and wrap. Additionally, instead of evaluating to
NaN, invalid values will evaluate to
"e" >> 0 ⇒ 0
although some may say so, but rather all of the conversions usually make it easier to use, and only in a few cases act unnaturally, like those mentioned above.
Thanks for reading, and E
+ has the worst performance of everything presented, I believe for performance
x >>> 0 has the best performance, but I may be incorrect.
This is why TypeScript and WASM exist.
Besides that, there's a few you missed, including