C# Tutorial - Variables, If/Else, While Loop and More!
Hi and welcome to this C# tutorial! Hope this helps you out!
- C# uses
//for single line comments.
//computer doesn't read this
- C# places a semicolon
;at the end of each statement.
int a = 5;
These are the main variables which will be dicussed here. There are more but here are the basics.
- They are made up of multiple characters.
- They are surrounded by double quotes
string name = "Bob";
- Are integers. Are whole numbers.
int b = 6;
- Have a decimal point and are more precise than integers.
double num = 5.01;
- Are either true or false.
bool fun = true;
In the repl.it that is included with this tutorial there are some conversions.
.toString(); -> Converts to a string
Convert.toDouble(); -> Converts to a double
Convert.toInt32(); -> Converts to an int
Output and Input
Console.WriteLine();is used to write something on a new line.
Console.Write();writes something on the same line
Console.ReadLine();returns the input as a string.
If/Else Statements (Conditionals)
An if statement is executed when something results to true. An if statement has a condition and body. If the condition is true then the body will run.
An example of a condition is
a == 5. Note that the
== is used because it is comparing two things. A
!= is the comparison operator for not true.
Example of an if statement:
An else statement is only executed if the rest are false. If you use 3 if statements and then an else statement then the code will try each if statement but if you use an if- else if- else setup then the code will only try 1 if statement.
A while loop can be used to continue to do something while a condition results to true.
In the calculator program included in this tutorial there is a variable declared at the very beginning like this:
bool try_again = true;. Then at the end, once the person has finised, if they input something other than yes for continuing the game the else statement body contains code which is
try_again = false which terminates the while loop. Every while loop needs a terminating condition or it will become an infinite loop!