Classes And Functions (Python)
Classes And Functions
Hello, Replit Community! Today I'll be making a tutorial on Classes And Functions! I hope this tutorial helps you with your understanding of Classes And Functions in Python, and good luck with it!
Why You Should Learn Classes And Functions
Classes and Functions just make Python and coding so much easier! With it, you can do all sorts of things, such as grouping functions, creating instances, etc.. So, let's get started!
Making A Class
Making a class will be the first step, so listen carefully!
The structure for a class name is shown below.
<name> can be any variable name of your choice! For example, it can be
Creating Variables Inside The Class
You can create a variable inside the class, as usual.
And, to get it, we attribute the variable name to the class name!
Creating Functions Inside The Class
Now, you'll learn how to create functions inside the class! There will be two examples below!
In this first example, we set the class name to
hello. We then create a function called
print_hello, which just simply prints
Hello! to the Python Console.
But what is important is of course, getting the function to run.
To do it, we just attribute the function to the class.
In this example, we have a function, but with parameters!
With parameters, it's still the same, but when calling the function, you just add the parameters like what you would usually do.
If you're wondering what the function
add will return, let's find out!
And, as usual, we get 8 (3 + 5).
__init__ Function Inside Classes
This part is a useful part in making classes, it is the
__init__ function! In this part, you can assign attributes. Then, you can do
self.<name> to access the attributes. So, let's get started!
In this example, we create a class called
Person, and we do the
__init__ function. In case you're wondering,
self just is a variable that helps attributes
age to Person.
Then, we can unlock the attributes by doing the following below.
What this line of code does just assigns the attributions. So now,
me.name is equal to
me.age is equal to
Also, inside the function, we've just assigned
self is just a variable to help with the attributes, it is not a parameter. And,
self must be put in as the first parameter for
__init__ To Other Functions
In the last part, we just learned that the
__init__ function assigns its parameters to
self.<name>. In this part, we'll connect what we learned last part with more functions!
Let's say we're creating a whole list of weapons. But they all have their own costs, damages, etc., and we'll create some functions, such as buying functions, selling functions, etc., to make it easier.
Whoa, that's a lot here! So, let's take a huge step and explain this whole thing.
First, we create a class called
Next, we make a
__init__ function and add the parameters
We then attribute those parameters.
self.sellcost is another thing; it is just the cost divided by 2.
Next, we create two functions (
sell), and they just run the code that is written inside the function.
Let's create some weapons now!
So now, let's test if our functions work!
buy part, let's just say we have 100 gold.
Yay! So our
buy function works! For the
sell one, I'm assuming that it is correct, too.
And that leaves us with our last part,
You may be wanting to create identical classes, then add on a function to the class (or whatever you want to do with the class), but Python lets you do that! It is actually pretty simple!
In Python, the class which you want to inherit from, is called the
If we want to inherit from this class, we can just do it in the structure below.
So if we want to create a class that has all the functions and things in the class
Parent, we do:
That just skips the class for now, but it still inherited the functions and code inside the class
Anyways, that brings us to a stop today.
Whew, that was a big tutorial! If you found this interesting or have any feedback, then please say so in the comments below. If you need help, I'll be glad to help! Also, comment below to let me know! Anyways, hope you learned something new about Classes And Functions today, and good luck and have fun with it!