Python Made EZ! 🐍
Hope y'all are doing great! School is starting real soon, so I hope
you have been studying to get ready you are enjoying the last of vacation!
So I made this tutorial on python so that others can try to learn from it and get better! Hopefully, what I say will be comprehensive and easy to read.
Most of it I will write, but sometimes I will include some stuff from other websites which explain better than me. I will put what I've taken in italic, and the sources and helpful links at the bottom.
By the way, this is the first of tutorials in languages I'm making!
I will be covering:
Hello World!: History of Python
- Key Terms
- Data Types
- Printing Variables
- Naming Variables
- Changing Variables
- Comparison Operators
- A Bit of Lists
- Small Programs and Useful Stuff
Goodbye World!: End
Well without any further ado, let's get on with it!
Hello World!: History of Python
Python is a general purpose programming language. It was created by Guido Van Rossum and released in 1991. One of the main features of it is its readability, simple syntax, and few keywords, which makes it great for beginners (with no prior experience of coding) to learn it.
Fun fact: Guido Van Rossum was reading the scripts of Monty Python when he was creating the language; he needed "a name that was short, unique, and slightly mysterious" so he decided to call the language Python.
(Last year we had to make a poem on a important person in Computer Science, so I made one on him: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yf2T2fFaS3Vwk7zkvN1nPOr8XPXJroL1yHI7z5qhaRc/edit?usp=sharing)
Now before we continue, just a few words you should know:
- Console: The black part located at the right/bottom of your screen
Input: stuff that is taken in by the computer (more on this later)
Ouput: the information processed and sent out by the computer (usually in the console)
Errors: actually, a good thing! Don't worry if you have an error, just try to learn from it and correct it. That's how you can improve, by knowing how to correct errors.
Execute: run a piece of code
Comments are used for explaining your code, making it more readable, and to prevent execution when testing code.
This is how to comment:
# this is a comment # it starts with a hashtag # # Python will ignore and not run anything after the hashtag
You can also have multiline comments:
""" this is a multiline comment I can make it very long! """
print() functions is used for outputting a message (object) onto the console. This is how you use it:
print("Something.") # remember this is a comment # you can use double quotes " # or single quotes ' print('Using single quotes') print("Is the same as using double quotes")
You can also triple quotes for big messages.
print("Hello World!") print(""" Rules:  Code  Be nice  Lol  Repeat """)
Hello World! Rules:  Code  Be nice  Lol  Repeat
Data types are the classification or categorization of data items.
These are the 4 main data types:
int: (integer) a whole number
12 is an
int, so is 902.
str: (string) a sequence of characters
"Hi" is a
str, so is "New York City".
float: (float) a decimal
-90 is a
float, so is 128.84
bool: (boolean) data type with 2 possible values;
True has a capital
False has a capital
Variables are used for containing/storing information.
name = "Lucy" # this variable contains a str age = 25 # this variable contains an int height = 160.5 # this variable contains a float can_vote = True # this variable contains a Boolean that is True (because Lucy is 25 y/o)
To print variables, you simply do
print(name) print(age) print(height) print(can_vote)
Lucy 25 160.5 True
You should try to make variables with a descriptive name. For example, if you have a variable with an age, an appropriate name would be
Some rules for naming variables:
- must start with a letter (not a number)
- no spaces (use underscores)
- no keywords (like
You can change variables to other values.
x = 18 print(x) x = 19 print(x) # the output will be: # 18 # 19
As you can see, we have changed the variable
x from the initial value of 18 to 19.
Let's go back to our first 3 variables:
name = "Lucy" age = 25 height = 160.5
What if we want to make a sentence like this:
Her name is Lucy, she is 25 years old and she measures 160.5 cm.
Of course, we could just print that whole thing like this:
print("Her name is Lucy, she is 25 years old and she measures 160.5 cm.")
But if we want to do this with variables, we could do it something like this:
print("Her name is " + name + ", she is " + age + " years old and she measures " + height + " cm.") # try running this!
Aha! If you ran it, you should have gotten this error:
Basically, it means that you cannot concatenate
str. But what does concatenate mean?
Concatenate means join/link together, like the concatenation of "sand" and "castle" is "sandcastle"
In the previous code, we want to concatenate the bits of sentences ("Her name is ", ", she is", etc.) as well as the variables (
Since the computer can only concatenate
str together, we simply have to convert those variables into
str, like so:
print("Her name is " + name + ", she is " + str(age) + " years old and she measures " + str(height) + " cm.") # since name is already a str, no need to convert it
Her name is Lucy, she is 25 years old and she measures 160.5 cm.
A symbol or function denoting an operation
Basically operators can be used in math.
List of operators:
+For adding numbers (can also be used for concatenation) | Eg: 12 + 89 = 101
-For subtracting numbers | Eg: 65 - 5 = 60
*For multiplying numbers | Eg: 12 * 4 = 48
/For dividing numbers | Eg: 60 / 5 = 12
**Exponentiation ("to the power of") | Eg: 2**3 = 8
//Floor division (divides numbers and takes away everything after the decimal point) | Eg: 100 // 3 = 33
%Modulo (divides numbers and returns whats left (remainder)) | Eg: 50 % 30 = 20
These operators can be used for decreasing/increasing variables.
x = 12 x += 3 print(x) # this will output 15, because 12 + 3 = 15
You can replace the
+= by any other operator that you want:
x = 6 x *= 5 print(x) y = 9 y /= 3 print(y) # this will output 30 and then below 3.
x += y is just a shorter version of writing
x = x + y; both work the same
Comparsion operators are for, well, comparing things. They return a Boolean value,
False. They can be used in conditionals.
List of comparison operators:
==equal to | Eg: 7 == 7
!=not equal to | Eg: 7 != 8
>bigger than | Eg: 12 > 8
<smaller than | Eg: 7 < 9
>=bigger than or equal to | Eg: 19 >= 19
<=smaller than or equal to | Eg: 1 <= 4
If we type these into the console, we will get either
6 > 7 # will return False 12 < 80 # will return True 786 != 787 # will return True 95 <= 96 # will return True
Conditionals are used to verify if an expression is
Example: we want to see if a number is bigger than another one.
How to say in english: "If the number 10 is bigger than the number 5, then etc.
How to say it in Python:
if 10 > 5: # etc.
All the code that is indented will be inside that
if statement. It will only run if the condition is verified.
You can also use variables in conditionals:
x = 20 y = 40 if x < y: print("20 is smaller than 40"!) # the output of this program will be "20 is smaller than 40"! because the condition (x < y) is True.
elif is basically like
if; it checks if several conditions are
age = 16 if age == 12: print("You're 12 years old!") elif age == 14: print("You're 14 years old!") elif age == 16: print("You're 16 years old!")
This program will output:
You're 16 years old!
age = 16.
else usually comes after the
elif. Like the name implies, the code inside it only executes if the previous conditions are
age = 12 if age >= 18: print("You can vote!") else: print("You can't vote yet!)
You can't vote yet!
age < 18.
input function is used to prompt the user. It will stop the program until the user types something and presses the return key.
You can assign the input to a variable to store what the user types.
username = input("Enter your username: ") # then you can print the username print("Welcome, "+str(username)+"!")
Enter your username: Bookie0 Welcome, Bookie0!
By default, the
input converts what the user writes into
str, but you can specify it like this:
number = int(input("Enter a number: ")) # converts what the user says into an int # if the user types a str or float, then there will be an error message. # doing int(input()) is useful for calculations, now we can do this: number += 10 print("If you add 10 to that number, you get: "+ str(number)) # remember to convert it to str for concatenation!
Enter a number: 189 If you add 10 to that number, you get: 199
You can also do
float(input("")) to convert it to
Now, here is a little program summarizing a bit of what you've learnt so far.
username = input("Username: ") password = input("Password: ") admin_username = "Mr.ADMIN" admin_password = "[email protected]" if username == admin_username: if password == admin_password: print("Welcome Admin! You are the best!") else: print("Wrong password!") else: print("Welcome, "+str(username)+"!")
Now a detailed version:
# inputs username = input("Username: ") # asks user for the username password = input("Password: ") # asks user for the password # variables admin_username = "Mr.ADMIN" # setting the admin username admin_password = "[email protected]" # setting the admin passsword # conditionals if username == admin_username: # if the user entered the exact admin username if password == admin_password: # if the user enters the exact and correct admin password print("Welcome Admin! You are the best!") # a welcome message only to the admin else: # if the user gets the admin password wrong print("Error! Wrong password!") # an error message appears else: # if the user enters something different than the admin username print("Welcome, general user "+str(username)+"!") # a welcome message only for general users
Username: Mr.ADMIN Password: i dont know Error! Wrong password!
Username: Mr.ADMIN Password: [email protected] Welcome Admin! You are the best!
Username: Bob Password: Chee$e Welcome, general user Bob!
A list is a collection which is ordered and changeable. They are written with square braquets:
meat = ["beef", "lamb", "chicken"] print(meat)
['beef', 'lamb', 'chicken']
You can access specific items of the list with the index number. Now here is the kinda tricky part. Indexes start at 0, meaning that the first item of the list has an index of 0, the second item has an index of 1, the third item has an index of 2, etc.
meat = ["beef", "lamb", "chicken"] # Index: 0 1 2 etc. print(meat) # will output "chicken" because it is at index 2
You can also use negative indexing: index -1 means the last item, index -2 means the second to last item, etc.
meat = ["beef", "lamb", "chicken"] # Index: -3 -2 -1 etc. print(meat[-3]) # will output "beef" because it is at index -3
You can add items in the list using
meat = ["beef", "lamb", "chicken"] meat.append("pork") print(meat)
['beef', 'lamb', 'chicken', 'pork']
"pork" will be added at the end of the list.
For removing items in the list, use
meat = ['beef', 'lamb', 'chicken'] meat.remove("lamb") print(meat)
You can also use
del to remove items at a specific index:
meat = ['beef', 'lamb', 'chicken'] del meat print(meat)
There are also many other things you can do with lists, check out this: https://www.w3schools.com/python/python_lists.asp for more info!
A for loop is used for iterating over a sequence. Basically, it runs a piece of code for a specific number of times.
for i in range(5): print("Hello!")
Hello! Hello! Hello! Hello! Hello!
You can also use the
for loop to print each item in a list (using the list from above):
meat = ['beef', 'lamb', 'chicken'] for i in meat: print(i)
beef lamb chicken
while loops will run a piece of code as long as the condition is
x = 1 # sets x to 1 while x <= 10: # will repeat 10 times print(x) # prints x x += 1 # increments (adds 1) to x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
You can also make
while loops go on for infinity, like so (useful for spamming lol):
while True: print("Theres no stopping me nowwwww!")
Theres no stopping me nowwwww! Theres no stopping me nowwwww! Theres no stopping me nowwwww! Theres no stopping me nowwwww! Theres no stopping me nowwwww! # etc until infinity
Functions are a group of code that will only execute when it is called.
For example, instead having to type a piece of code several times, you can use a function to put that piece of code inside, and then when you need to use it, you can just call it.
def greeting(): # defining the function print("Bonjour!") # everything that is indented will be executed when the function is called greeting() # calling the function # you can now call this function when you want, instead of always writing the same code everytime
return and arguments
return statement is used in function. It ends the function and _ "returns" the result, i.e. the value of the expression following the return keyword, to the caller._ It is not mandatory; you don't have to use it.
You can also have arguments inside a functions. This allows you to change the function values. The arguments are in the parenthesis.
def sum(x, y): # x and y are the arguments total = x + y return total # "assigns" x + y to the function result = sum(4, 5) # you can change those to what you want print(result) # this will output 9, because 4+5 = 9
You can use time in your Python programs.
How to make the program wait:
# first import time import time print("Hello!") # then for the program to wait time.sleep(1) # write how long you want to wait (in seconds) in the parenthesis print("Bye!")
Hello! # program will wait 1 second Bye!
You can also do this (more simpler):
import time from time import sleep # instead of time.sleep(), do sleep() # its the same print("time.sleep(1)...") time.sleep(1) print("...is the same as...") sleep(1) print("sleep(1)!")
You can use the
random module to randomly pick numbers with
# remember to import! import random from random import randint rand_num = randint(1,5) # this will output a random number between 1 and 5 inclusive! # this means the possible numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5
The reason I am precising this is because you can also use
import random from random import randrange rand_num = randrange(1,5) # this will output a random number between 1 inclusive and 5 NON-inclusive (or 4 inclusive)! # this means the possible numbers are 1, 2, 3, or 4
You can also randomly pick an item from a list with
import random from random import choice meat = ["beef", "lamb", "chicken"] rand_meat = choice(meat) print(rand_meat) # this will output a randomly chosen item of the list meat # the possible outcomes are beef, lamb, or chicken.
First, you already have some functions already built in Python:
max(). They return the smallest and biggest value of
ints inside the parenthesis, respectively.
list_a = min(18, 12, 14, 16) list_b = max(17, 19, 15, 13) print(list_a) # will output 12 print(list_b) # will output 19
Now for some more modules:
You can use
math.ceil() to round up numbers to the nearest or highest
# first import import math num_a = math.floor(2.3) num_b = math.ceil(2.3) print(num_a) # will output 2 print(num_b) # will output 3
Explanation (from Andrew Sutherland's course): So
math.floor() will round up
2.3 to the nearest lowest
int, which in this case is
2. This is because, if you imagine it, the floor is on the bottom, so thats why it will round the number to the nearest lowest
math.ceil(); it will round up
2.3 to the nearest highest
int, which in this case is
3. This is because
ceil is short for ceiling (programmers like to shorten words), and the ceiling is high.
You can also get
import math pi = math.pi print(pi)
Here is the full list of all the things you can do with
# imports import time from time import sleep def countdown(): # making a function for the countdown (so you can use it several times) count = int(input("Countdown from what? ")) # asks user how long the countdown while count >= 0: # will repeat until count = 0 print(count) # prints where the countdown is at count -= 1 # subtracts 1 from count sleep(1) # program waits 1 second before continuing print("End of countdown!") # message after the countdown countdown() # remember to call the function or nothing will happen
Countdown from what? 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 End of countdown!
First way using
calculation = input("Type your calculation: ") # asks the user for a calculation. print("Answer to " + str(calculation) + ": " + str(eval(calculation))) # eval basically does the operation, like on a normal calculator. # however, if you write something different than a valid operaion, there will be an error.
Or another way, using several conditionals, and you can only do "something" + "something" (but with the operators):
def calculator(): # making a function to hold all the code for calculator while True: # loops forever so you can make several calculations without having to press run again first_num = int(input("Enter 1st number: ")) # asks user for 1st number second_num = int(input("Enter 2nd number: ")) # asks user for 2nd number operator = input("Select operator: + - * / ** // ") # asks user for operator if operator == "+": # addition answer = first_num + second_num print(answer) elif operator == "-": # subtraction answer = first_num - second_num print(answer) elif operator == "*": # multiplication answer = first_num * second_num print(answer) elif operator == "/": # division answer = first_num / second_num print(answer) elif operator == "**": # exponentiation ("to the power of") answer = first_num ** second_num print(answer) elif operator == "//": # floor division answer = first_num // second_num print(answer) else: # if user selects an invalid operator print("Invalid!") calculator() # calls the function
But obviously that is pretty long and full of many
Some functions that are useful:
"Press ENTER to continue" Prompt:
def enter(): input("Press ENTER to continue! ") # this is useful for text based adventure games; when they finish reading some text, they can press ENTER and the next part will follow. # just call the function where you need it
Spacing in between lines function:
def space(): print() print() # same as pressing ENTER twice, this is useful to make your text a bit more airy, makes it less compact and block like.
# first imports: import time, sys from time import sleep def sp(str): for letter in str: sys.stdout.write(letter) sys.stdout.flush() time.sleep(0.06) print() # to use it: sp("Hello there!") # this will output Hello There! one letter every 0.06 seconds, making it look like the typewriter effect.
ANSI Escape Codes
ANSI escape codes are for controlling text in the console. You can use it to make what is in the output nicer for the user.
For example, you can use
\n for a new line:
name = input("Enter your name\n>>> ")
Enter your name >>>
This makes it look nice, you can start typing on the little prompt arrows
You can also use
\t for tab:
\v for vertical tab:
You can also have colors in python:
# the ANSI codes are stored in variables, making them easier to use black = "\033[0;30m" red = "\033[0;31m" green = "\033[0;32m" yellow = "\033[0;33m" blue = "\033[0;34m" magenta = "\033[0;35m" cyan = "\033[0;36m" white = "\033[0;37m" bright_black = "\033[0;90m" bright_red = "\033[0;91m" bright_green = "\033[0;92m" bright_yellow = "\033[0;93m" bright_blue = "\033[0;94m" bright_magenta = "\033[0;95m" bright_cyan = "\033[0;96m" bright_white = "\033[0;97m" # to use them: print(red+"Hello") # you can also have multiple colors: print(red+"Hel"+bright_blue+"lo") # and you can even use it with the slowPrint I mentioned earlier!
And you can have underline and italic:
reset = "\u001b[0m" underline = "\033[4m" italic = "\033[3m" # to use it: print(italic+"Hello "+reset+" there "+underline+"Mister!") # the reset is for taking away all changes you've made to the text # it makes the text back to the default color and text decorations.
Always good to use a bit of help from here and there!
- W3 Schools: https://www.w3schools.com/python/default.asp
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guido_van_Rossum
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANSI_escape_code
Good Websites you can use:
- Official website: https://www.python.org/
- W3 Schools: https://www.w3schools.com/python/default.asp
Goodbye World!: End
Well, I guess this is the end. I hope y'all have learnt something new/interesting! If you have any questions, please comment and I will try my best to answer them.
PS: STAY 6 FEET APART!!!
This is AMAZING it helped me learn so much more in python that I knew I am a new Dev and this helped me SOOOOO much! Its worth reading!
@Bookie0 remember this
username = input("Username: ") # asks user for the username
password = input("Password: ") # asks user for the password
admin_username = "Mr.ADMIN" # setting the admin username
admin_password = "[email protected]" # setting the admin passsword
if username == admin_username: # if the user entered the exact admin username
if password == admin_password: # if the user enters the exact and correct admin password print("Welcome Admin! You are the best!") # a welcome message only to the admin else: # if the user gets the admin password wrong print("Error! Wrong password!") # an error message appears
else: # if the user enters something different than the admin username
print("Welcome, general user "+str(username)+"!") # a welcome message only for general user"
i want to know how i can make multiple of these without and error
@ChezCoder Ok Imma check it out.
btw, you say you were warned for advertising when you mentioned your projects on a post; was it your post or someone else's post? if it wasnt your post, then yea I guess that would be advertsising.
also popularity on repl.it doesnt really matter, its mostly how you code ;)
just realised how similar this is to mine :/
hey bookie i found this repl that is vry ooffensive. i think you should see it for yourself: https://repl.it/talk/share/Bookie0-Plz-RUn-this-repl/56054
@Bookie0 hey also one more thing, would you like to help me with a project i am making. i see you are learning c++ so i was hoping you could help me. its ok if you don't want to but it would be awsome if u did. btw the projects is a voting thing where you vote if you like mango juice or orange juice better. also it will be only c++ and some text files but thats it. thank you for reading this and be caring ;)
hi yea I know a bit of c++, but sorry, I can't really collab as I don't have much times these days (school, HW, tests, etc).
Also, you mention that your project is a sorta voting thing; are you planning on just making the data temporary (reset when you press the run button again) or are you planning on making a data base or something, that would be cool lol.
However, if you have some questions I can try, with my limited knowledge, to help you! ;)
Good luck! :D
you need some ideas? here:
- choice making game
- quiz (like harry potter quiz, math quiz, star wars quiz)
- personality quiz (like which house are you in HP, are you a nerd/jock/popular/idiot etc)
- tic tac toe
- dice rolling game
- name/place/idea/story generator
- HTML webpage about yourself
- text based adventure game
- simulator (Life sim, cooking sim, teacher sim, fighting sim, etc.)
- hotel managment game
- tycoon game (idle factory game, idle miner game, idle city game)
- minecraft but simpler
- ascii art/animation
- url shortener
- site like another site (site like repl.it, google, amazon)
- clicker game
- make a tutorial about something you know well of
If you need more ideas, you can just google on the internet "python program ideas"; here are some results:
\e[38;5;166mGreat tutorial! ANSI codes aren't part of python...
they are... part of the terminal